How to Read the Results
You can see the raw results by clicking on the link below, but before you do, please read this primer on interpreting the results.
- Different participants have tested different numbers of markers. The way the tests work, a person can elect to have 37, 67, or 111 markers tested. These are specific locations on the Y chromosome, which is passed only from father to son. When you look at the table, you’ll see that not every participant has a number in every column. Some early tests were only for 12 markers, some later ones more. It was their personal choice. Eventually it would be great for everyone to have 111 markers so we can compare apples with apples.
- Don’t worry about the specific numbers in the columns. The numbers themselves aren’t important. It’s comparing the numbers that gives us information. If, for example, you have a lottery ticket, you just want the numbers drawn on television to match the ones on your ticket, in the right order. There’s no particular significance to the numbers themselves; it’s just a question of whether they match or not.
- The colored squares show the markers that don’t match. The computer looks at all the samples, and for each marker it figures out what the most common value is. If most of the samples have a 12 in the first spot (which all the Bacharachs do), then that is the most common value or “Modal” value. The “Mode” is listed across the top. Any place where an individual differs from the mode will show up as a color. This is the easiest way to see where participants vary from each other. If one individual has all white squares, he matches the mode 100%. If another has one colored square, he has a genetic difference of one (or more) from both the mode and the individual who matches the mode. By looking at where the colored squares are, it’s possible to see how closely the individuals within the group match each other. The chart below shows ONLY the markers where all Bacharach participants don’t match. All the columns where they match 100% have been deleted (lots of columns, up to 111 markers).
- The group is divided into multiple subgroups. Those who have done NGS (Next Generation Sequencing) tests, which sample about 20 million locations on the Y chromosome searching for places where the nucleotide (A,C,G, or T) varies from the reference sample. When groups of men share the same variants, also known as SNPs (pronounced “snips”) or Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms, they belong to the same haplogroup. The project is organized by haplogroup. In cases where project members have not done NGS testing, we group them with their closest STR relatives.
Four Anomalies that the Bacharach Group Have that Distinguish Them As a Group
- DYS464: Normally there will be four copies of this marker, labeled 464a-464d. There is, however, a small percentage of Y-DNA samples which contain more than four. Of the Bacharachs who have had at least 25 markers tested, all but two have two additional copies: 464e and 464f. This is an extremely rare occurrence, which increases the likelihood of a common ancestor for these men.
- CDY: The normal number of copies of this marker is 2. The Bacharachs have 3.
- Microallele: There is a partial extra copy of the STR at 464b. Most, if not all, of the Bacharachs have the value 13.1 at 464b.